Son of Adad-nirari II. Aramaic is made the second official language of the Assyrian empire. Ruled Babylonia direct BC. He rules in a far more direct fashion than any other Assyrian king of this century, taking personal command of the various campaigns and removing the princes who had taken so much authority upon themselves. The indirect governance of Kar-Shulmanu-Ashared as a base for Shamshi-ilu, the all-but independent Assyrian king of the west, is also ended. Now a new Assyrian advance begins when the king invades Parsuai and turns it into an Assyrian province also known as Nikur, after its capital. This refers to Parsua , but not those of southern Iran. This is one of the northern groups which had settled in the Zagros Mountains. Nikur may not be too far to the west from the later city of Ecbatana. Possibly in the same year the Assyrians make a raid farther to the east, reaching Arazias, and a Median fortress called Zakruti.

Chaldean Catholic Church

Islamic State jihadists open ‘marriage bureau’ 28 Jul Reduced to no more than a mere hundred thousand, most fled their cities to the mountains of Kurdistan in the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Then, after the Ottoman Army has finished massacring 50 per cent of their population, 20th century Iraq also turned its back on its own natives, executing 3, of them in less than five days.

And somehow, those people — the Assyrians, the indigenous Aramaic-speaking people of northern Iraq — took a cursory glance at their wounds, said a prayer, and returned to their daily lives.

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Their military might was terrifying. And now, a new archaeological finding reveals more about the defensive strategies of this once powerful empire. A team headed by Dr Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv University has announced the discovery of one of the largest construction projects in the entire Mediterranean basin: It’s likely that this wall was built in the midst of several conflicts between the Assyrians and two Israeli kingdoms, as well as Israel’s neighbours the Philistines.

One legendary battle took place between the Assyrians and a Philistine uprising led by a king called Yamani. Assyrian inscriptions reveal that at the end of the century, Yamani, the rebel king of Ashdod, led a rebellion against Sargon II, the king of the Assyrian Empire.


March 28, Courtesy of Goran M. Amin Construction workers accidentally discovered a vaulted tomb dating back to the time of the Assyrian Empire in Erbil, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. Ten skeletons were also found at the site. Inside the tomb, which was constructed with baked bricks, archaeologists discovered three ceramic sarcophagi holding two skeletons.

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Louvre AO ; photo by Karen Radner. Sargon was not the chosen successor of his father Tiglath-pileser III BC but took the throne by force from his brother Shalmaneser V BC , the former crown prince Ululayu whose reign lasted barely five years. Sargon was already middle-aged when he came to power: As a son of Tiglath-pileser, we might expect to find Sargon attested in a prominent military or administrative role in the archival materials from Kalhu dating to his father’s reign but, as we do not know under what name he was known before he took the crown of Assyria, he has not yet been identified.

His throne name means “the king is true” and one of his inscriptions explains in detail the political programme behind this choice: Sargon portrayed himself as the restorer of order, but did he rescue the country from a state of lawlessness under his brother or was the chaos caused by a coup which he himself had engineered in order to win the crown? The few available sources do not allow us to decide this matter. The new king met with massive opposition in the Assyrian heartland as well as further away.

Hamat was destroyed once again and 6, “guilty Assyrians”, people from the heartland whose lives Sargon had decided to spare but whom he exiled from the empire’s centre in northern Iraq, found themselves moved to its ruins, repaying their merciful king by rebuilding this once proud city. As central Assyria and the west rose in rebellion against the new king, Assyria’s enemies in the south saw their chance: Merodach-baladan, chief of the powerful Bit-Yakin tribe and the leading figure of the anti-Assyrian movement in Babylonia , announced the end of Assyrian sovereignty and claimed the throne of Babylon for himself.

Together they mustered a massive army against Sargon’s forces. Although Merodach-baladan’s troops arrived too late for active combat, the Assyrian army was pushed back by his Elamite allies and he retained control of the south and the title of king of Babylon.

Assyria, Israel, Amos, Sakkuth, and Dēr

Buddhists and Hindus as well as some African groups were the ones with which they came in contact. As People of the Book or dhimmi , Jews, Christians and Mandaeans in some cases Zoroastrians received second-class treatment but were tolerated. In the Ottoman Empire, this religious status became systematized as the ” millet ” administrative pattern.

The Assyrian Empire. The first great military empire in ancient history was the Assyrian Empire. By the time of Ashurnasirpal and Shalmaneser III in the 9th century BC the Assyrians organized a mighty army of nearly , soldiers.

History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.

You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.

Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery. Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations.

They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries.

Governor of Jerusalem’s Seal Impression From First Temple Era Found Near Western Wall

The Hittites, having failed to save Mitanni, allied with Babylon in an unsuccessful economic war against Assyria for many years. Assyria was now a large and powerful empire, and a major threat to Egyptian and Hittite interests in the region, and was perhaps the reason that these two powers, fearful of Assyrian might, made peace with one another.

He then conquered Babylonia, taking Kashtiliash IV as a captive and ruled there himself as king for seven years, taking on the old title “King of Sumer and Akkad” first used by Sargon of Akkad. Tukulti-Ninurta I thus became the first Akkadian speaking native Mesopotamian to rule the state of Babylonia, its founders having been foreign Amorites, succeeded by equally foreign Kassites.

“The Assyrians demanded the Egyptian extradite him, which they did. The entire affair is mentioned both in the Bible and in Assyrian sources. (For Gaza will be abandoned And Ashkelon a desolation; Ashdod will be driven out at noon And Ekron will be uprooted.

You shall take up Sakkuth your king, and Kaiwan your star-god, your images, which you made for yourselves; therefore I will take you into exile beyond Damascus, says the LORD, whose name is the God of hosts. The problem of why the Israelites adopted an obscure god like Sakkut remains unsolved. The Israelites may have borrowed the worship of this planet from the Assyrians.

In this case there are two options. This view implies that the text is a later insertion by a deuteronomistic redactor who confused situations before and after the conquest of the capital H. There are, however, other options, taking into account both the Assyrian and Hebrew texts. Elements in play here: Apparent mention by Amos 5. In their contact with the homeland, they transferred images of their new god back to Samaria before its fall, and this worship of Sakkud is what Amos 5.

News of the Assyrians destroying yet another city and deporting its inhabitants must have been quite widespread, no doubt as intended by the Assyrians themselves as a kind of deterrent against further insurrections. Of the two options, I find the second given here more likely, owing to the wider context of chapter 5 of Amos, especially including reference to Gligal 5.

Pictured: the ‘real site’ of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Edit The many ancient kingdoms of Assyria, long since swept into the dust of history, were at various times among the most prosperous and powerful of any on Earth. Centered in the heart of Mesopotamia modern northern Iraq , Assyria was founded by Semitic descendants of Akkadian and Sumerian refugees following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire c.

Despite a number of initial attempts at forming an independent kingdom, the Assyrians were continually thwarted by the expansion of their neighbors, particularly Babylon.

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I’m also wondering if the religious divisions make it hard for your people to unify in times of crisis and work together. If you can tell me how splits aside from the Nestorian Church came about and what difference does faith have on someone’s identity? Are people of certain faiths less likely to be Assyrians and more likely to Chaldeans or Mandeans or vice versa? Here are the churches that I’ve found when researching your community. Please tell me if I missed anything.

This is the largest Assyrian Church with about 5 million faithful but about half of its parishioners are in fact St Thomas Christians from India and not Assyrians. The Syriac Catholic Church which has about , faithful and while it shares much of its doctrinal an liturgical tradition with the Syriac Orthodox Church it is actually in communion with Rome with the Pope as the final authority. The Chaldean Catholic Church which has about , faithful and shares much of it’s doctrinal tradition with Syriac Orthodoxy and Catholicism but it is a separate church that is also in communion with Rome.

Governor of Jerusalem’s Seal Impression From First Temple Era Found Near Western Wall

It does not allow for one national designation for one people. Some may disagree but the people that call themselves any of the above things today are Syriac-Speaking or of a Syriac-Speaking background and heritage and hence are of Assyrian origin. Many issues disputing whether they are Assyrian, apart from the concept of self determination, can be answered by some statements and research made by eminent historians and scholars, purely from a historical and scholarly perspective. In this paper I shall set out to demonstrate first of all about whom we can say are Assyrians, the regions inhabited by Assyrians in the Middle East and what Assyrians have always called themselves.

I have gathered and shall be using the opinions of eminent scholars to back up these arguments and using them I shall make apparent the origin of the word Syriac itself, linking to the ancient Assyrians. They are among the first nations who accepted Christianity.

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Notice the four spokes wheel. BC —were very active during the last quarter of the thirteenth century, from ca. At this time, the Hittites were at war with the Assyrians in Mesopotamia. In a discussion of Assur-uballit I, who ruled over Assyria at the time of the Amarna pharaohs, and who had sacked Babylon after a marriage alliance between the two powers went awry. The Assyrians, after a brief period of relative dormancy following the reign of Assur-uballit, had become resurgent under their king, Adad-nirari I — BC.

Under his leadership and that of his successors, the Assyrians emerged as a major power in the Near East at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Among his other accomplishments, Adad-nirari I fought against the Mitannians, capturing Washukanni and other cities. He placed a client king on their throne and extended the Assyrian Empire sufficiently far to the west that it now bordered the Hittite homeland and almost reached to the Mediterranean Sea.

This may not have been as difficult as it sounds, however, since the Hittites under Suppiluliuma I had already inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Mitannians several decades earlier. He followed in the footsteps of Adad-nirari but was perhaps also emulating his predecessor of the previous century, Assur-uballit, when he decided to attack Babylon.

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